Biophysics and Structure to Counter Threats and Challenges

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You can go to cart and save for later there. Average rating: 0 out of 5 stars, based on 0 reviews Write a review. Tell us if something is incorrect. Book Format: Choose an option. Product Highlights This ASI brought together a diverse group of experts who span virology, biology, biophysics, chemistry, physics and engineering.

Prominent lecturers representing world renowned scientists from nine 9 different countries, and students from around the world representing eighteen 18 countries. About This Item We aim to show you accurate product information.

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Manufacturers, suppliers and others provide what you see here, and we have not verified it. See our disclaimer. Customer Reviews. Write a review. See any care plans, options and policies that may be associated with this product. Email address. An integrated approach to managing landscapes is not a new concept, but rather one refined through multiple iterations during attempts to integrate social and economic development with biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation. As integrated thinking evolved, a plethora of approaches were conceived.

Biophysics and Structure to Counter Threats and Challenges

These suggest that there are three key reasons why it has been difficult to achieve optimal, and multiple, outcomes. Secondly, despite emphasizing the importance of integration as an objective, researchers, policymakers, and conservation and development practitioners have struggled to overcome disciplinary boundaries.

Ironically, this confusion may have been perpetuated through the burgeoning zeal of research organizations aiming to embrace integration, with every new tweaking of a given iteration resulting in a plethora of often florid and confusing terms. However, this may hinder progress as confusion over terms and their application may be impeding donor commitments, slowing policy traction and stalling practitioner uptake. It is therefore important to highlight the mechanisms behind these failings and identify how we can best learn to bridge these gaps.


The challenge for sustainability scientists and practitioners is to integrate research efforts from design to practice. This should ensure the delivery of a coherent approach, with the greater clarity appealing to donors, policymakers and practitioners. The landscape approach seeks to address global challenges of poverty alleviation, food security, climate change and biodiversity loss. Although it can be viewed as a refinement of prior approaches, it is distinct as it explicitly acknowledges that satisfying all stakeholders will often be unachievable. Perhaps the greatest distinction of the landscape approach is that it does not follow the traditional unidirectional project cycle approach.

Evaluating progress within a landscape is fundamental to determining where gains or losses are being made. How such decisions are arrived at will largely depend on the structural arrangements and governance systems in place within and outside the landscape. This need for contextualization extends beyond the evaluation of spatial and biophysical components.

This is well illustrated by the tendency of rural communities to align important community rituals and ceremonies with key events in the agricultural calendar Posey, Landscapes are inherently dynamic.

The individual components that comprise a landscape, be they biophysical, social or political, never remain static and stochastic changes can, and will, inevitably occur. To be effective, a landscape approach framework therefore needs to be flexible enough to adapt to such changes.

Given that the landscape approach encourages inclusivity of multiple stakeholders, governed at multiple scales through the application of adaptive management to outcomes without specific objectives, it would be remiss of the approach — and it's practitioners — not to be as dynamic as the landscape in which they are working. Such systems have the potential to identify and avoid perverse outcomes Kinzig, Reed, J.

Barlow, T.

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Sunderland, in preparation. This raises questions as to why there is a large gap between knowledge and implementation, why landscape approaches have been implemented but not reported in the scientific literature, what barriers to implementation currently exist, and to what extent these barriers can be overcome? Somewhat ironically, there are processes that are required to effectively implement a landscape approach that also contribute to the current barriers to implementation. The lack of documented landscape approaches may be due to the ongoing theory development process, resulting in a time lag whereby implementing partners are reluctant to commit to initiatives until the theory and conceptualization is fully established.

However, application of the landscape approach is necessary to advance progress towards environmental and developmental sustainability. As with many components of a landscape approach, finding an optimal balance that is context specific will be necessary. With considerate design, application and monitoring, there is considerable potential to generate feedback mechanisms to develop future guidelines for good practice.

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The premise of a holistic approach is the capacity to study the whole system even when not fully cognizant of the precise functioning of the component parts Naveh, While efforts must be made to strengthen the theory and conceptualization of landscape approaches, there is sufficient knowledge already available to apply it in practice.

The real value of this knowledge will only be realized through integrated commitments to implement and evaluate the approach over larger spatial and temporal scales. In this sense, a landscape approach becomes less about a destination, or endpoint, and more about the journey, reiterating the need to have regular, inclusive and facilitated negotiation between stakeholders that generate feedback mechanisms for adaptive management. Implementation may also be being impeded because of a reluctance among individuals and institutions to operate outside of their regular realms of operation and expertise, more critically it is only through strategic partnerships that such integration can be effective.

Likewise, multiple sectors represented within the landscape have traditionally maintained sectoral objectives, whether that is be to satisfy agricultural, forestry, tourism, energy, resource extraction or sociocultural demands. At the national level, ministerial silos also exist with a typical administrative structure containing separate ministries for forests, agriculture and energy, for example. To bridge the knowledge—implementation gap, a greater willingness to work across disciplinary, sectoral and political silos must be displayed. Finally, donors and project sponsors are also reluctant to break from traditional norms with a tendency to support projects at small spatial and temporal scales.

Clearly, to fulfil the objectives of an integrated landscape approach, either longer term commitments from donors must be sought or alternative mechanisms for financing sustainable landscapes be put in place. Established funding donor cycles are inherently maladapted to fully support a truly integrative landscape approach, and a paradigm shift is required to alter how donors see and rate outcomes of implementations.

This emphasizes the need for some simple and understandable landscape metrics that will enable stakeholders to evaluate progress and make informed decisions for future management see below.

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Such participatory engagement — underpinned by facilitation, negotiation and compromise — is a key tenet of the approach, and therefore, it is vital that this process is performed with due consideration. A landscape approach must attempt to not only understand the basic needs of local stakeholders but to foster empowerment of community members. By providing local stakeholders an active voice in the design and management of the landscape, it can be determined what people want and expect, rather than what they are prepared to accept Costanza, However, caution must be applied as the literature is replete with examples of poorly contextualized interventions with good intentions resulting in outcomes far removed from the objectives.

External stakeholders often encompass corporate entities whose role in the landscape is one of economic bottom lines that often run counter to rural development and environmental objectives.

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A landscape approach can be applied to address specific landscape challenges, both existing and novel. However, without sufficient political and private sector support, landscape approaches may not be fully realized. Clearly, there is considerable scope to close the gap between private and public sector investments in landscape initiatives.

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Put simply, without quantifiable and measurable data, evaluation of progress within the landscape would be indeterminable, feedback loops would fail, adaptive management would be unachievable, and landscape approaches would thus be ineffective. Landscape monitoring is an inherently challenging task. Despite the general lack of frameworks for data collection and landscape evaluation, a body of theory is beginning to develop. Sayer, A. Boedhihartono, L. Buck, B. Campbell, A. This ASI brought together a diverse group of experts who span virology, biology, biophysics, chemistry, physics and engineering. Prominent lecturers representing world renowned scientists from nine 9 different countries, and students from around the world representing eighteen 18 countries, participated in the ASI organized by Professors Joseph Puglisi Stanford University, USA and Alexander Arseniev Moscow, RU.

The central hypothesis underlying this ASI was that interdisciplinary research, merging principles of physics, chemistry and biology, can drive new discovery in detecting and fighting chemical and bioterrorism agents, lead to cleaner environments and improved energy sources, and help propel development in NATO partner countries. At the end of the ASI students had an appreciation of how to apply each technique to their own particular research problem and to demonstrate that multifaceted approaches and new technologies are needed to solve the biological challenges of our time.

The course succeeded in training a new generation of biologists and chemists who will probe the molecular basis for life and disease. Read more Read less.