Menander: A Rhetor in Context

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Arrives by Thursday, Oct 3. Pickup not available. About This Item We aim to show you accurate product information. Manufacturers, suppliers and others provide what you see here, and we have not verified it. See our disclaimer. Menander: A Rhetor in Context Ancient schools of rhetoric taught students how to devise arguments in legal and political disputes, and how to express them.

Many scholars believe that these techniques increasingly lost their practical relevance under the Roman Empire. This detailed reassessment of the history and social significance of rhetoric in late antiquity shows how it was taught, and why the skills it promoted were still believed to have a direct application in the subsequent careers of the rhetoricians' pupils. Customer Reviews.

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Write a review. See any care plans, options and policies that may be associated with this product. Email address. Please enter a valid email address. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in , completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication.

In , an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I.

Menander Rhetor

These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in , so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content. However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology.

As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy , which are not as common in modern reference texts. In , using the pseudonym of S.

Malcolm Heath-Menander_ a Rhetor in Context () | Retórica | Persuasión

Diocletian Diocletian , born Diocles , was a Roman emperor from to Born to a family of low status in Dalmatia , Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become Roman cavalry commander to the Emperor Carus. After the deaths of Carus and his son Numerian on campaign in Persia , Diocletian was proclaimed emperor; the title was claimed by Carus' surviving son, but Diocletian defeated him in the Battle of the Margus.

Diocletian's reign marks the end of the Crisis of the Third Century , he appointed fellow officer Maximian as Augustus , co-emperor, in Diocletian delegated further on 1 March , appointing Galerius and Constantius as Caesars, junior co-emperors, under himself and Maximian respectively. Under this'tetrarchy', or "rule of four", each emperor would rule over a quarter-division of the empire.

Diocletian purged it of all threats to his power, he defeated the Sarmatians and Carpi during several campaigns between and , the Alamanni in , usurpers in Egypt between and Galerius, aided by Diocletian, campaigned against Sassanid Persia , the empire's traditional enemy. In he sacked Ctesiphon. Diocletian achieved a lasting and favourable peace. Diocletian separated and enlarged the empire's civil and military services and reorganized the empire's provincial divisions, establishing the largest and most bureaucratic government in the history of the empire, he established new administrative centres in Nicomedia , Mediolanum and Trevorum, closer to the empire's frontiers than the traditional capital at Rome.

Building on third-century trends towards absolutism , he styled himself an autocrat , elevating himself above the empire's masses with imposing forms of court ceremonies and architecture. Bureaucratic and military growth, constant campaigning, construction projects increased the state's expenditures and necessitated a comprehensive tax reform.

Karen Jackson, On Rhetorical Context

From at least on, imperial taxation was standardized, made more equitable, levied at higher rates. Not all of Diocletian's plans were successful: the Edict on Maximum Prices , his attempt to curb inflation via price controls, was counterproductive and ignored. Although effective while he ruled, Diocletian's tetrarchic system collapsed after his abdication under the competing dynastic claims of Maxentius and Constantine, sons of Maximian and Constantius respectively.

The Diocletianic Persecution , the empire's last and bloodiest official persecution of Christianity , failed to eliminate Christianity in the empire. Despite these failures and challenges, Diocletian's reforms fundamentally changed the structure of Roman imperial government and helped stabilize the empire economically and militarily, enabling the empire to remain intact for another years despite being near the brink of collapse in Diocletian's youth. Weakened by illness, Diocletian left the imperial office on 1 May , became the first Roman emperor to abdicate the position voluntarily, he lived out his retirement in his palace on the Dalmatian coast.

His palace became the core of the modern-day city of Split in Croatia. Diocletian was born near Salona in Dalmatia, some time around His parents gave him the Greek name Diocles, or Diocles Valerius. The modern historian Timothy Barnes takes his official birthday, 22 December, as his actual birthdate. Other historians are not so certain, his parents were of low status. The first forty years of his life are obscure; the Byzantine chronicler Joannes Zonaras states that he was Dux Moesiae, a commander of forces on the lower Danube. The often-unreliable Historia Augusta states that he served in Gaul , but this account is not corroborated by other sources and is ignored by modern historians of the period; the first time Diocletian's whereabouts are established, in , the Emperor Carus made him commander of the Protectores domestici , the elite cavalry force directly attached to the Imperial household — a post that earned him the honour of a consulship in As such, he took part in Carus' subsequent Persian campaign.

Carus's death, amid a successful war with Persia and in mysterious circumstances — he was believed to have been struck by lightning or killed by Persian soldiers — left his sons Numerian and Carinus as the new Augusti. Carinus made his way to Rome from his post in Gaul as imperial commissioner and arrived there by January , becoming legitimate Emperor in the West. Numerian lingered in the East; the Roman withdrawal from Persia was unopposed. The Sassanid king Bahram II could not field an army against them as he was still struggling to establish his authority.

By March , Numerian had only reached Emesa in Syria. In Emesa he was still alive and in good health: he issued the only extant rescript in his name there, but after he left the city, his staff, including the prefect Aper, reported that he suffered from an inflammation of the eyes, he travelled in a closed coach from on. When the army reached Bithynia , some of the soldiers smelled an odor emanating from the coach, they opened its curtains and inside. Rhetoric Rhetoric is the art of persuasion.

Along with grammar and logic, it is one of the three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric aims to study the capacities of writers or speakers needed to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations. Aristotle defines rhetoric as "the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion" and since mastery of the art was necessary for victory in a case at law or for passage of proposals in the assembly or for fame as a speaker in civic ceremonies, calls it "a combination of the science of logic and of the ethical branch of politics".

Rhetoric provides heuristics for understanding and developing arguments for particular situations, such as Aristotle's three persuasive audience appeals: logos and ethos; the five canons of rhetoric or phases of developing a persuasive speech were first codified in classical Rome : invention, style and delivery. From Ancient Greece to the late 19th century, rhetoric played a central role in Western education in training orators, counsellors, historians and poets.

Scholars have debated the scope of rhetoric since ancient times. Although some have limited rhetoric to the specific realm of political discourse, many modern scholars liberate it to encompass every aspect of culture. Contemporary studies of rhetoric address a much more diverse range of domains than was the case in ancient times.

While classical rhetoric trained speakers to be effective persuaders in public forums and institutions such as courtrooms and assemblies, contemporary rhetoric investigates human discourse writ large. Rhetoricians have studied the discourses of a wide variety of domains, including the natural and social sciences, fine art, journalism, digital media, history and architecture, along with the more traditional domains of politics and the law; because the ancient Greeks valued public political participation, rhetoric emerged as a crucial tool to influence politics.

Rhetoric remains associated with its political origins; however the original instructors of Western speech—the Sophists—disputed this limited view of rhetoric. According to the Sophists , such as Gorgias , a successful rhetorician could speak convincingly on any topic, regardless of his experience in that field. This method suggested. In his Encomium to Helen, Gorgias applied rhetoric to fiction by seeking for his own pleasure to prove the blamelessness of the mythical Helen of Troy in starting the Trojan War. Looking to another key rhetorical theorist, Plato defined the scope of rhetoric according to his negative opinions of the art, he criticized the Sophists for using rhetoric as a means of deceit instead of discovering truth.

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  • In "Gorgias", one of his Socratic Dialogues , Plato defines rhetoric as the persuasion of ignorant masses within the courts and assemblies. Rhetoric, in Plato's opinion, is a form of flattery and functions to cookery, which masks the undesirability of unhealthy food by making it taste good. Thus, Plato considered any speech of lengthy prose aimed at flattery as within the scope of rhetoric. Aristotle both redeemed rhetoric from his teacher and narrowed its focus by defining three genres of rhetoric—deliberative, forensic or judicial, epideictic.

    Yet as he provided order to existing rhetorical theories, Aristotle extended the definition of rhetoric, calling it the ability to identify the appropriate means of persuasion in a given situation, thereby making rhetoric applicable to all fields, not just politics.

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    When one considers that rhetoric included torture , it is clear that rhetoric cannot be viewed only in academic terms. However, the enthymeme based upon logic was viewed as the basis of rhetoric.

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    However, since the time of Aristotle, logic has changed. For example, Modal logic has undergone a major development that modifies rhetoric. Yet, Aristotle outlined generic constraints that focused the rhetorical art squarely within the domain of public political practice, he restricted rhetoric to the domain of the contingent or probable: those matters that admit multiple legitimate opinions or arguments. The contemporary neo-Aristotelian and neo-Sophistic positions on rhetoric mirror the division between the Sophists and Aristotle.

    Neo-Aristotelians study rhetoric as political discourse, while the neo-Sophistic view contends that rhetoric cannot be so limited. Rhetorical scholar Michael Leff characterizes the conflict between these positions as viewing rhetoric as a "thing contained" versus a "container". The neo-Aristotelian view threatens the study of rhetoric by restraining it to such a limited field, ignoring many critical applications of rhetorical theory and practice; the neo-Sophists threaten to expand rhetoric beyond a point of coherent theoretical value. Over the past century, people studying rhetoric have tended to enlarge its object domain beyond speech texts.

    Kenneth Burke asserted humans use rhetoric to resolve conflicts by identifying shared characteristics and interests in symbols. By nature, humans engage in identification, either to identify themselves or another individual with a group; this definition of rhetoric as identification broadened the scope from strategic and overt political persuasion to the more implicit tactics of identification found in an immense range of sources.

    Among the many scholars who have since pursued Burke's line of thought, James Boyd White sees rhetoric as a broader domain of social experience in his notion of constitutive rhet. Palestine region Palestine is a geographic region in Western Asia considered to include Israel , the West Bank , the Gaza Strip , in some definitions, some parts of western Jordan.

    The name was used by ancient Greek writers, it was used for the Roman province Syria Palaestina , the Byzantine Palaestina Prima , the Islamic provincial district of Jund Filastin ; the region comprises most of the territory claimed for the biblical regions known as the Land of Israel , the Holy Land or Promised Land.

    It has been known as the southern portion of wider regional designations such as Canaan , ash-Sham, the Levant. Situated at a strategic location between Egypt and Arabia, the birthplace of Judaism and Christianity , the region has a long and tumultuous history as a crossroads for religion, culture and politics; the region has been controlled by numerous peoples, including Ancient Egyptians , Canaanites and Judeans, Babylonians , ancient Greeks , the Jewish Hasmonean Kingdom , Parthians , Byzantines, the Arab Rashidun , Umayyad and Fatimid caliphates, Ayyubids , Mongols , the British, modern Israelis, Jordanians and Palestinians.

    The boundaries of the region have changed throughout history. Today, the region comprises the State of Israel and the Palestinian territories in which the State of Palestine was declared. Modern archaeology has identified 12 ancient inscriptions from Egyptian and Assyrian records recording cognates of Hebrew Pelesheth; the term " Peleset " is found in five inscriptions referring to a neighboring people or land starting from c.

    The first known mention is at the temple at Medinet Habu which refers to the Peleset among those who fought with Egypt in Ramesses III's reign, the last known is years on Padiiset's Statue. A century Aristotle used a similar definition for the region in Meteorology , in which he included the Dead Sea.