Victorian Fiction: Writers, Publishers, Readers
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Insights can be gained into the work of an author through examining their notebooks. When Whitman looked back over his notebooks for pieces of language to make into lines, he developed a facility to decontextualize words from their original authority. Something freely borrowed from disparate sources surely seemed less his own and encouraged him, in a way, to give it back by offering it to the reader. By the standards of his day these practices were ruthlessly anti-aesthetic Ever one to humanize, to furnish his parts toward the soul, Whitman saw his work as an organic, living body.
Nathaniel Hawthorne was an American novelist. According to Newbury , Nathaniel Hawthorne considered a number of other professions such as minister, lawyer, and physician before choosing to become an author. He was aware that it was an emerging and insecure profession. Margaret Fuller represents the difficulty women continued to experience as authors. An American critic and women's right advocate, Fuller played a central role in the American transcendentalism movement and was the first editor of the transcendentalist journal The Dial.
While she had a reputation as the "best read" person in New England and was the first woman allowed to study at the Harvard College Library, many of her contemporaries weren't supportive of her efforts. Woman in the Nineteenth Century by Margaret Fuller is considered the first major feminist work in the United States. French novelist Jules Verne provides a great example of the importance of a good publisher and the hazards of losing control over the original writing.
Prior to collaborating with publisher Pierre-Jules Hetzel , Verne had been unsuccessful in selling his novels. Hetzel worked with Verne to improve the quality of his writing. Notice the illustrations by Edouard Riou and Henri de Montaut. Their relationship continued until Hetzel's death in Verne created adventure novels under the series name Voyages Extraordinaires. The series made Verne wealthy and famous. The image below left shows a work from the Voyages Extraordinaires series.
The image below right shows a poster for Jules Verne's Voyages Extraordinaires series Verne's first problem was in translation. After Agatha Christie, his works appear in more translations than any other author. Because translations can alter the meaning and complexity of the text, this impacts the quality of the book. The translation was by William Lackland. Notice that the artwork in the frontispiece uses a different image found on page 98 of the original book. A second problem is with abridgements.
The Book: to the Present
In some countries, his books were viewed as works for children. As a result, abridgements and alternated translations were sometimes created for the youth audience. Again, this impacted the quality of the publication and how people viewed Verne. Based on the commercial popularity of his books and the way there were at times marketed to children, some critics viewed him as a popular author, but not worthy of scholarly status. Another problem was with illustrations.
Vernes worked closely with the illustrators of his books. The collaboration of a gifted author and illustrator creates synergy that changes when a different illustrator is chosen to create new artwork for later editions. Letters among Verne, Hetzel, and the illustrators indicate a close relationship. After Verne's death, his son Michel Verne made changes in the Voyages Extraordinaries series and republished them. Finally, at least one of Verne's works was never published. The novel Paris in the Twentieth Century written in wasn't published because Hetzel thought it would damage Verne's career.
The book was very forward thinking and forecast important inventions like worldwide communications networks. Charles Dickens was very demanding of publishers. In Charles Dickens and his Publishers , Patten traces Dicken's relationships with various publishers.
Patten notes that at the beginning of his career, Dickens was careful and civil with his publisher. However over time, he became much more demanding. He was frustrated that publishers often made more money than the author. He was also concerned about pirated editions. Patten used publisher account books to gain insights into the relationship Dickens had with his publishers.
In addition to changes in authorship, the role of book illustrations was changing. Berg , 69 noted that in France, both authors and artists complained that poor-quality wood engravings were being used in books. During the midth century illustrations were found on nearly every page. Berg , 74 stated that "the revised relationship between text and illustration brought about corresponding changes in the roles of writer and illustrator. Harriet Beecher Stowe was a well-educated, abolitionist and American author.
The first installment of Uncle's Tom Cabin was published in the National Era as installments in Less than a year later, an amazing three hundred thousand copies had been sold. The image on the right was take around about the time Uncle Tom's Cabin was published. Into the 19th century, many authors of fiction chose to write anonymously for a variety of reasons. However Stowe chose to use her name. Stowe's experience shows the notoriety that comes from creating a controversial work as well as the challenge of fiction writing in this time period.
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Stowe received lots of criticism from those who felt that Uncle Tom's Cabin was no only fictional, but also untrue. In the preface, Stowe addressed the purpose of the book.
In fictitious writing, it is possible to find refuge from the hard and the terrible, by inventing scenes and characters of a more pleasing nature. No such resource is open in a work of fact; and the subject of this work is one on which the truth, if told at all, must needs be very dreadful. There is no bright side of slavery, as such She hopes that what she has said will be examined without bitterness, - in that serious and earnest spirit which is appropriate for the examination of so very serious a subject.
This work, more, perhaps, than any other work of fiction that ever was written, has been a collection and arrangement of real incidents, - of actions really performed, of words and expressions really uttered, - grouped together with reference to a general result, in the same manner that the mosaic artist groups his fragments of various stones into one general picture.
Although southern reviews claimed that Stowe misrepresented slavery, they did not deny her facts. Many negative reviews also made insinuations about her gender and character demonstrating the challenges that continued to face women for more than another century. Like authors, the career of illustrator became more respected in the 19th century. While many books continued to be anonymously illustrated, a growing number of illustrators were gaining notoriety for their quality work.
Many times illustrators copied the work of others. Before illustrations were included as part of copyright law, many artists used the works of others. This was particularly common in works such as fairy tales. However a few outstanding illustrators emerged during this time. Illustration of fiction became popular in the s. William Blake is known as the first "book artist". Rather than working with a commercial publisher, he preferred to publish his own books. To produce high quality images, he used a resist to combine his drawings and text on a copper plate.
The Book as Author Work: 19th Century
Then, used his own printing press for production. Felix Octavius Carr Darley was one of the first great American illustrators. Sir John Tenniel is a good example of an illustrator that moved between magazine work and book illustration in the mid to late s. While he was known for his Punch cartoons below left , he is best known for illustrations for Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland below right and Through the Looking Glass Howard Pyle was well known for his historical subjects. While many books were illustrated by multiple artists, he became know for his high quality works. Charles Marion Russell and Frederic Remington specialized in cowboy illustration.
There was much interest in the westward movement and all things related to the cowboys during the late s. George Cruikshank was a caricaturist known for his book illustrations. Four Hundred Humorous Illustrations contains a biographical sketch along with hundreds of his popular illustrations. Children's books exploded in popularity in the 19th century.
Illustrations like Randolph Caldecott and Kate Greenaway were both popular illustrators for children. Skim Greenaway, Kate Frederick Warne and Co. Notice the use of illustrations throughout. To learn more about children's book illustrators, skim Blackburn, Henry Children's Books and their Illustrators.
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To learn more about illustrators of this time period, skim Everitt, Graham Geoffrey, Halton, Ernest, Salaman, Malcolm Modern Book Illustrators and Their Work. Each writer has his or her own way of producing content.
freewarware.tk Several inventors experimented with writing machines before the typewriter was invented.